Current concepts in the management of childhood myopia

Indian J Ophthalmol. 2022 Aug;70(8):2800-2815. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_2098_21.


Myopia or short-sightedness is an emerging pandemic affecting more than 50% population in South-Asian countries. It is associated with several sight-threatening complications, such as retinal detachment and choroidal neovascularization, leading to an increased burden of visual impairment and blindness. The pathophysiology of myopia involves a complex interplay of numerous environmental and genetic factors leading to progressive axial elongation. Environmental factors such as decreased outdoor activity, reduced exposure to ambient light, strenuous near work, and role of family history of myopia have been implicated with increased prevalence of this refractive error. While multiple clinical trials have been undertaken to devise appropriate treatment strategies and target the modifiable risk factors, there is no single treatment modality with ideal results; therefore, formulating a comprehensive approach is required to control the myopia epidemic. This review article summarizes the epidemiology, dynamic concepts of pathophysiology, and evolution of the treatment modalities for myopia such as pharmacological (atropine and other agents) and optical methods (spectacles, contact lenses, and orthokeratology).

Keywords: Atropine; childhood myopia; contact lenses; orthokeratology; refractive error; spectacles.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Atropine
  • Contact Lenses*
  • Disease Progression
  • Eyeglasses
  • Humans
  • Myopia* / diagnosis
  • Myopia* / epidemiology
  • Myopia* / therapy


  • Atropine