Effect of Screening and Treatment for Gonorrhea and Chlamydia on HIV Incidence Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in the United States: A Modeling Analysis

Sex Transm Dis. 2022 Oct 1;49(10):669-676. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001685. Epub 2022 Jul 29.


Background: Previous models have estimated the total population attributable fraction of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis (NG/CT) on HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM), but this does not represent realistic intervention effects. We estimated the potential impact of screening for NG/CT on downstream incidence of HIV among MSM.

Methods: Using a network model, we estimated the effects of varying coverage levels for sexually transmitted infection screening among different priority populations: all sexually active MSM regardless of HIV serostatus, MSM with multiple recent (past 6 months) sex partners regardless of serostatus, MSM without HIV, and MSM with HIV. Under the assumption that all screening events included a urethral test, we also examined the effect of increasing the proportion of screening events that include rectal screening for NG/CT on HIV incidence.

Results: Increasing annual NG/CT screening among sexually active MSM by 60% averted 4.9% of HIV infections over a 10-year period (interquartile range, 2.8%-6.8%). More HIV infections were averted when screening was focused on MSM with multiple recent sex partners: 60% coverage among MSM with multiple recent sex partners averted 9.8% of HIV infections (interquartile range, 8.1%-11.6%). Increased sexually transmitted infection screening among MSM without HIV averted more new HIV infections compared with the transmissions averted because of screening MSM with HIV, but fewer NG/CT tests were needed among MSM with HIV to avert a single new HIV infection.

Conclusions: Screening of NG/CT among MSM is expected to lead to modest but clinically relevant reductions in HIV incidence among MSM.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Chlamydia Infections* / diagnosis
  • Chlamydia Infections* / epidemiology
  • Chlamydia Infections* / prevention & control
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Gonorrhea* / diagnosis
  • Gonorrhea* / epidemiology
  • Gonorrhea* / prevention & control
  • HIV Infections* / diagnosis
  • HIV Infections* / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections* / prevention & control
  • Homosexuality, Male
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Mass Screening
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Sexual and Gender Minorities*
  • United States / epidemiology