Genomic landscape of patients with FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated within the CALGB 10603/RATIFY trial

Leukemia. 2022 Sep;36(9):2218-2227. doi: 10.1038/s41375-022-01650-w. Epub 2022 Aug 3.


The aim of this study was to characterize the mutational landscape of patients with FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated within the randomized CALGB 10603/RATIFY trial evaluating intensive chemotherapy plus the multi-kinase inhibitor midostaurin versus placebo. We performed sequencing of 262 genes in 475 patients: mutations occurring concurrently with the FLT3-mutation were most frequent in NPM1 (61%), DNMT3A (39%), WT1 (21%), TET2 (12%), NRAS (11%), RUNX1 (11%), PTPN11 (10%), and ASXL1 (8%) genes. To assess effects of clinical and genetic features and their possible interactions, we fitted random survival forests and interpreted the resulting variable importance. Highest prognostic impact was found for WT1 and NPM1 mutations, followed by white blood cell count, FLT3 mutation type (internal tandem duplications vs. tyrosine kinase domain mutations), treatment (midostaurin vs. placebo), ASXL1 mutation, and ECOG performance status. When evaluating two-fold variable combinations the most striking effects were found for WT1:NPM1 (with NPM1 mutation abrogating the negative effect of WT1 mutation), and for WT1:treatment (with midostaurin exerting a beneficial effect in WT1-mutated AML). This targeted gene sequencing study provides important, novel insights into the genomic background of FLT3-mutated AML including the prognostic impact of co-mutations, specific gene-gene interactions, and possible treatment effects of midostaurin.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Genomics
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute*
  • Mutation
  • Nucleophosmin*
  • Prognosis
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3


  • Nucleophosmin
  • FLT3 protein, human
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3