Detecting DNA Methylations in the Hyperthermoacidophilic Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Using SMRT Sequencing

Methods Mol Biol. 2022:2516:39-50. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-2413-5_3.


DNA methylations are one of the most well-known epigenetic modifications along with histone modifications and noncoding RNAs. They are found at specific sites along the DNA in all domains of life, with 5-mC and 6-mA/4-mC being well-characterized in eukaryotes and bacteria respectively, and they have not only been described as contributing to the structure of the double helix itself but also as regulators of DNA-based processes such as replication, transcription, and recombination. Different methods have been developed to accurately identify and/or map methylated motifs to decipher the involvement of DNA methylations in regulatory networks that affect the cellular state.Although DNA methylations have been detected along archaeal genomes, their involvement as regulators of DNA-based processes remains the least known. To highlight the importance of DNA methylations in the control of key cellular mechanisms and their dynamics in archaea cells, we have used single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. This sequencing technology allows the identification and direct mapping of the methylated motifs along the genome of an organism. In this chapter, we present a step-by-step protocol for detecting DNA methylations in the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius using SMRT sequencing. This protocol can easily be adapted to other prokaryotes.

Keywords: Archaea; DNA methylome; Epigenetics; Hyperthermophile; Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing; Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • DNA / metabolism
  • DNA Methylation
  • Genome, Archaeal
  • Sulfolobus acidocaldarius* / genetics
  • Sulfolobus acidocaldarius* / metabolism


  • DNA