Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has become a global pandemic since December 2019. Most of the patients are mild or asymptomatic and recovered well as those suffered from other respiratory viruses. SARS-CoV-2 infection is supposed to demonstrate more sequelae. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common among COVID-19 patients and is associated with disease severity and outcomes. Only a few studies focused on a detailed analysis of kidney damage in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients. Whether any minor viral infection is likely to exhibit similar minor effect on renal function as COVID-19 is still unclear, and the definite pathophysiology of viral invasion is not fully understood. Currently, the proposed mechanisms of AKI include direct effects of virus on kidney, dysregulated immune response, or as a result of multi-organs failure have been proposed. This study will discuss the difference between COVID-19 and other viruses, focusing on proposed mechanisms, biomarkers and whether it matters with clinical significance.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; asymptomatic; influenza virus; kidney damage; respiratory viruses.