Homotypic and heterotypic immune responses to Omicron variant in immunocompromised patients in diverse clinical settings

Nat Commun. 2022 Aug 4;13(1):4489. doi: 10.1038/s41467-022-32235-x.


Immunocompromised patients are predisposed to severe COVID-19. Here we compare homotypic and heterotypic humoral and cellular immune responses to Omicron BA.1 in organ transplant patients across a diverse clinical spectrum. We perform variant-specific pseudovirus neutralization assays for D614G, and Omicron-BA.1, -BA.2, and Delta variants. We also measure poly-and monofunctional T-cell responses to BA.1 and ancestral SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools. We identify that partially or fully-vaccinated transplant recipients after infection with Omicron BA.1 have the greatest BA.1 neutralizing antibody and BA.1-specific polyfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, with potent cross-neutralization against BA.2. In these patients, the magnitude of the BA.1-directed response is comparable to immunocompetent triple-vaccinated controls. A subset of patients with pre-Omicron infection have heterotypic responses to BA.1 and BA.2, whereas uninfected transplant patients with three doses of vaccine demonstrate the weakest comparative responses. These results have implications for risk of infection, re-infection, and disease severity among immune compromised hosts with Omicron infection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • COVID-19*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Cellular
  • Immunocompromised Host
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Viral Vaccines*


  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Viral Vaccines

Supplementary concepts

  • SARS-CoV-2 variants