Abnormal uric acid level result in the development of hyperuricemia and hallmark of various diseases, including renal injury, gout, cardiovascular disorders, and non-alcoholic fatty liver. This study was designed to explore the anti-inflammatory potential of stevia residue extract (STR) against hyperuricemia-associated renal injury in mice. The results revealed that STR at dosages of 150 and 300 mg/kg bw and allopurinol markedly modulated serum uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine in hyperuricemic mice. Serum and renal cytokine levels (IL-18, IL-6, IL-1Β, and TNF-α) were also restored by STR treatments. Furthermore, mRNA and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis revealed that STR ameliorates UA (uric acid)-associated renal inflammation, fibrosis, and EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) via MMPS (matrix metalloproteinases), inhibiting NF-κB/NLRP3 activation by the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway and modulating the JAK2-STAT3 and Nrf2 signaling pathways. In summary, the present study provided experimental evidence that STR is an ideal candidate for the treatment of hyperuricemia-mediated renal inflammation. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The higher uric acid results in hyperuricemia and gout. The available options for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout are the use of allopurinol, and colchicine drugs, etc. These drugs possess several undesirable side effect. The polyphenolic compounds are abundantly present in plants, for example, stevia residue extract (STR) exert a positive effect on human health. From this study results, we can recommend that polyphenolic compounds enrich STR could be applied to develop treatment options for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout.
Keywords: hyperuricemia; immunohistochemistry; polyphenols; renal injury; stevia.
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