Fluoroscopic-guided procedures of the lower extremity

Skeletal Radiol. 2023 May;52(5):855-874. doi: 10.1007/s00256-022-04139-w. Epub 2022 Aug 5.


This article reviews the literature and the authors' experiences regarding the performance of lower extremity fluoroscopically guided procedures from the hip to the toes. An overview of injections and aspirations, their indications, risks, and complications are provided, focusing on anesthetics, corticosteroids, and contrast agents. A variety of approaches to each joint and the associated pearls and pitfalls of each approach will be discussed.

Keywords: Corticosteroid injection (CSI); Fluoroscopic-guided joint injections; Foot injection; Hip aspiration; Hip injection; Intraarticular contrast; Knee aspiration; Knee injection; Metatarsophalangeal injection; Naviculocuneiform injection; Prosthetic joint infection (PJI); Septic arthritis; Subtalar injection; Talonavicular injection; Tarsometatarsal injection; Tibiotalar injection.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones*
  • Contrast Media*
  • Fluoroscopy / methods
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intra-Articular / methods
  • Lower Extremity / diagnostic imaging


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Contrast Media