Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous malignancy affecting myeloid cells in the bone marrow (BM) but can spread giving rise to impaired hematopoiesis. AML incidence increases with age and is associated with poor prognostic outcomes. There has been a disconnect between the success of novel drug compounds observed in preclinical studies of hematological malignancy and less than exceptional therapeutic responses in clinical trials. This review aims to provide a state-of-the-art overview on the different preclinical models of AML available to expand insights into disease pathology and as preclinical screening tools. Deciphering the complex physiological and pathological processes and developing predictive preclinical models are key to understanding disease progression and fundamental in the development and testing of new effective drug treatments. Standard scaffold-free suspension models fail to recapitulate the complex environment where AML occurs. To this end, we review advances in scaffold/matrix-based 3D models and outline the most recent advances in on-chip technology. We also provide an overview of clinically relevant animal models and review the expanding use of patient-derived samples, which offer the prospect to create more "patient specific" screening tools either in the guise of 3D matrix models, microphysiological "organ-on-chip" tools or xenograft models and discuss representative examples.
Keywords: 3D model; AML, cancer; Biomaterials; Bone marrow; Matrix; Organ-on-chip; Preclinical models; Scaffold; Xenograft.
© 2022. The Author(s).