CAR T-Cell-Based gene therapy for cancers: new perspectives, challenges, and clinical developments

Front Immunol. 2022 Jul 22;13:925985. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.925985. eCollection 2022.


Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy is a progressive new pillar in immune cell therapy for cancer. It has yielded remarkable clinical responses in patients with B-cell leukemia or lymphoma. Unfortunately, many challenges remain to be addressed to overcome its ineffectiveness in the treatment of other hematological and solidtumor malignancies. The major hurdles of CAR T-cell therapy are the associated severe life-threatening toxicities such as cytokine release syndrome and limited anti-tumor efficacy. In this review, we briefly discuss cancer immunotherapy and the genetic engineering of T cells and, In detail, the current innovations in CAR T-cell strategies to improve efficacy in treating solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. Furthermore, we also discuss the current challenges in CAR T-cell therapy and new CAR T-cell-derived nanovesicle therapy. Finally, strategies to overcome the current clinical challenges associated with CAR T-cell therapy are included as well.

Keywords: CAR T-cell therapy; gene therapy; hematologic malignancies; immunotherapy; solid cancers.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Genetic Therapy / adverse effects
  • Hematologic Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Hematologic Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy, Adoptive / adverse effects
  • Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Neoplasms* / therapy
  • T-Lymphocytes