Nanomaterials assisted exosomes isolation and analysis towards liquid biopsy

Mater Today Bio. 2022 Jul 22;16:100371. doi: 10.1016/j.mtbio.2022.100371. eCollection 2022 Dec.

Abstract

Exosomes has attracted tremendous research interests as they are emerging as a new paradigm of liquid biopsy. Although the concentration of exosomes in blood is relatively abundant, there still exists various vesicle-like nanoparticles, such as microvesicles, apoptotic bodies. It's an urgent need to isolate and enrich exosomes from the complex contaminants in biofluid samples. Moreover, the expressing level of exosomal biomarkers varies a lot, which make the sensitive molecular detection of exosomes in high demand. Unfortunately, the efficient isolation and sensitive molecular quantification of exosomes is still a major obstacle hindering the further development and clinical application of exosome-based liquid biopsy. Nanomaterials, with unique physiochemical properties, have been widely used in biosensing and analysis aspects, thus they are thought as powerful tools for effective purification and molecular analysis of exosomes. In this review, we summarized the most recent progresses in nanomaterials assisted exosome isolation and analysis towards liquid biopsy. On the one hand, nanomaterials can be used as capture substrates to afford large binding area and specific affinity to exosomes. Meanwhile, nanomaterials can also be served as promising signal transducers and amplifiers for molecular detection of exosomes. Furthermore, we also pointed out several potential and promising research directions in nanomaterials assisted exosome analysis. It's envisioned that this review will give the audience a complete outline of nanomaterials in exosome study, and further promote the intersection of nanotechnology and bio-analysis.

Keywords: Exosome isolation; Exosomes; Liquid biopsy; Molecular detection; Nanomaterials.