Loss of Monoallelic Expression of IGF2 in the Adult Liver Via Alternative Promoter Usage and Chromatin Reorganization

Front Genet. 2022 Jul 22;13:920641. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2022.920641. eCollection 2022.

Abstract

In mammals, genomic imprinting operates via gene silencing mechanisms. Although conservation of the imprinting mechanism at the H19/IGF2 locus has been generally described in pigs, tissue-specific imprinting at the transcript level, monoallelic-to-biallelic conversion, and spatio-temporal chromatin reorganization remain largely uninvestigated. Here, we delineate spatially regulated imprinting of IGF2 transcripts, age-dependent hepatic mono- to biallelic conversion, and reorganization of topologically associating domains at the porcine H19/IGF2 locus for better translation to human and animal research. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of normal and parthenogenetic porcine embryos revealed the paternally hypermethylated H19 differentially methylated region and paternal expression of IGF2. Using a polymorphism-based approach and omics datasets from chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), whole-genome sequencing (WGS), RNA-seq, and Hi-C, regulation of IGF2 during development was analyzed. Regulatory elements in the liver were distinguished from those in the muscle where the porcine IGF2 transcript was monoallelically expressed. The IGF2 transcript from the liver was biallelically expressed at later developmental stages in both pigs and humans. Chromatin interaction was less frequent in the adult liver compared to the fetal liver and skeletal muscle. The duration of genomic imprinting effects within the H19/IGF2 locus might be reduced in the liver with biallelic conversion through alternative promoter usage and chromatin remodeling. Our integrative omics analyses of genome, epigenome, and transcriptome provided a comprehensive view of imprinting status at the H19/IGF2 cluster.

Keywords: IGF2; alternative promoter usage; biallelic conversion; chromatin reorganization; imprinting; pigs.