Efficacy of Opioids in Preemptive Multimodal Analgesia for Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial

J Arthroplasty. 2022 Aug 5;S0883-5403(22)00742-2. doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2022.08.001. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Preemptive multimodal analgesia is a commonly used technique to control pain following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of pre-emptive opioids for pain management in patients who underwent TKA.

Methods: In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 100 patients who underwent TKA at our hospital were randomized to the oxycodone or control group. At 2 hours before surgery, patients in the oxycodone group received 400 mg celecoxib, 150 mg pregabalin, and 10 mg extended-release oxycodone hydrochloride. Patients in the control group received 400 mg celecoxib, 150 mg pregabalin, and placebo. The primary outcome was postoperative consumption of morphine hydrochloride as rescue analgesia. Secondary outcomes were time to first rescue analgesia, postoperative pain assessed by the visual analogue scale, functional recovery assessed by range of knee motion and ambulation distance, time until hospital discharge, indicators of liver function, and complication rates.

Results: The 2 groups were similar in mean postoperative 0 to 24 hour morphine consumption (11.4 mg for control versus 12.4 mg for oxycodone group, P = .419) and mean total morphine consumption (18.2 versus 19.8 mg, P = .227). There were no statistical differences in secondary outcomes.

Conclusions: In our study, preemptive opioid administration did not provide clinical benefits over placebo. Orthopaedic surgeons should consider not using pre-operative opioids in patients undergoing TKA.

Keywords: multimodal analgesia; opioids; pain; preemptive analgesia; total knee arthroplasty.