A Web-based Educational Intervention to Increase Perianesthesia Nurses' Knowledge, Attitude, and Intention to Promote Safe Use, Storage, and Disposal of Opioids

J Perianesth Nurs. 2022 Dec;37(6):795-801. doi: 10.1016/j.jopan.2022.04.001. Epub 2022 Aug 6.


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if a web-based educational intervention increased knowledge, attitudes, and intention of perianesthesia nurses regarding opioid discharge education (including safe use, storage, and disposal of opioids). Secondary outcomes were to determine Perceived Behavioral Control, subjective norms, and familiarity with American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses (ASPAN) guidance on opioid education.

Design: A pre-test, post-test longitudinal design.

Methods: An email described the study and had a link for those choosing to participate. The intervention was a web-based voiceover module with patient education scenarios focused on information required for patients before discharge home. Responses to the evidence-based pre-survey, post-survey one, and post-survey two were collected. The survey was developed using components of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Data analysis included descriptive summary and evaluation of changes in knowledge and domains of Theory of Planned Behavior using repeated measures mixed modeling.

Findings: The participants were invited to complete a pre-test survey (n = 672), the immediate post-test (n = 245), and the 4-week post-test (n = 172). The analysis presented is limited to 245 who completed at least the first post-survey. Most were staff nurses (82%), and the majority had a BSN (62%); participants most typically worked in a hospital-based PACU (73%). For all outcomes, there was an immediate increase in the measure following the intervention; this pairwise difference (between pretest and the immediate post-test) was significant in all but one of the models. The immediate and 4-week post-test scores exceeded the corresponding pre-test score, though for Perceived Behavioral Control, attitude, and intention, the degree of increase between baseline and week 4 was not significant.

Conclusions: In all cases, both the immediate and 4-week post-test scores exceeded the corresponding pre-test score, though, for three of the TPB constructs, the difference between baseline and week 4 was not significant, while nearly all of the increases between baseline and immediately following the intervention were significant. These findings suggest a more intensive intervention, possibly with the inclusion of booster sessions, may be needed.

Keywords: Theory of Planned Behavior; opioids; patient education; perianesthesia.

MeSH terms

  • Analgesics, Opioid*
  • Clinical Competence
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Intention
  • Internet
  • Nurses*


  • Analgesics, Opioid