As the scale of single-cell genomics experiments grows into the millions, the computational requirements to process this data are beyond the reach of many. Herein we present Scarf, a modularly designed Python package that seamlessly interoperates with other single-cell toolkits and allows for memory-efficient single-cell analysis of millions of cells on a laptop or low-cost devices like single-board computers. We demonstrate Scarf's memory and compute-time efficiency by applying it to the largest existing single-cell RNA-Seq and ATAC-Seq datasets. Scarf wraps memory-efficient implementations of a graph-based t-stochastic neighbour embedding and hierarchical clustering algorithm. Moreover, Scarf performs accurate reference-anchored mapping of datasets while maintaining memory efficiency. By implementing a subsampling algorithm, Scarf additionally has the capacity to generate representative sampling of cells from a given dataset wherein rare cell populations and lineage differentiation trajectories are conserved. Together, Scarf provides a framework wherein any researcher can perform advanced processing, subsampling, reanalysis, and integration of atlas-scale datasets on standard laptop computers. Scarf is available on Github: https://github.com/parashardhapola/scarf .
© 2022. The Author(s).