Complications related to the Cook-Swartz implantable Doppler probe use in head and neck microvascular reconstruction: a systematic review

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2023 Jan;280(1):23-37. doi: 10.1007/s00405-022-07577-3. Epub 2022 Aug 8.


Purpose: Vascular perfusion research has been dedicated to identify inexpensive, effective, and easy to use methods to assess free flap perfusion for both buried and non-buried flaps.

Methods: Systematic review of complications in patients underwent Head and Neck microsurgical reconstruction and vascular implantable Doppler monitoring.

Results: Sixteen articles were included for qualitative analysis. 2535 (92.2%) patients received IDP monitorization. Venous thrombosis was the most common vascular complication effecting 28 (1.1%). Regarding complications potentially related to the use of the IDP, just one study described the presence of granuloma formation along the suture line in 2 (0.07%) patients.

Conclusions: Our findings indicated that Cook-Swartz IDP will represents a safe and effective device for FF monitoring in HN reconstructive micro-surgery. A detailed prospective registration of the results and complications related to the use of IDP remains mandatory to precisely estimate results, cost, and complications.

Keywords: Head and neck; Implantable Doppler; Microsurgical; Reconstruction.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Free Tissue Flaps* / adverse effects
  • Free Tissue Flaps* / blood supply
  • Humans
  • Monitoring, Physiologic
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler / methods