Oculopharyngodistal myopathy

Curr Opin Neurol. 2022 Oct 1;35(5):637-644. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000001089. Epub 2022 Aug 4.


Purpose of review: Oculopharyngodistal myopathy (OPDM) is a rare adolescent or adult-onset neuromuscular disease that is characterized by progressive ocular, facial, pharyngeal and distal limb muscle weakness. The rimmed vacuoles and intranuclear inclusions in myofibers constitute the pathological hallmark of OPDM. In this review, the latest findings related to the genetic, molecular and clinical features of OPDM, as well as the diagnosis and management are summarized.

Recent findings: Four gene mutations, CGG repeats in the 5'-untranslated region of LRP12 , GIPC1 , NOTCH2NLC and RILPL1 have been reported to be disease-causing genes in OPDM, namely OPDM1, OPDM2, OPDM3 and OPDM4, accordingly. So far, limited studies have suggested that CGG repeat expansion within the pathogenic range may play a key role in the pathogenesis of OPDM with the gain-of-function mechanism at the RNA and/or protein level, while repeat expansion over a threshold limit may cause hypermethylation, leading to the transcriptional silencing of the CGG repeats in the expanded allele, which results in the existence of mild phenotype or asymptomatic carriers.

Summary: Novel gene mutations, possible molecular mechanisms and the clinical features related to different causative genes are discussed in this review. More studies on the exact pathogenic mechanism are needed.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Muscle Weakness
  • Muscular Dystrophies* / genetics
  • Phenotype

Supplementary concepts

  • Oculopharyngodistal Myopathy