Intensive Training of Spatial Hearing Promotes Auditory Abilities of Bilateral Cochlear Implant Adults: A Pilot Study

Ear Hear. 2023 Jan-Feb;44(1):61-76. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000001256. Epub 2022 Aug 9.


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a virtual reality-based spatial hearing training protocol in bilateral cochlear implant (CI) users and to provide pilot data on the impact of this training on different qualities of hearing.

Design: Twelve bilateral CI adults aged between 19 and 69 followed an intensive 10-week rehabilitation program comprised eight virtual reality training sessions (two per week) interspersed with several evaluation sessions (2 weeks before training started, after four and eight training sessions, and 1 month after the end of training). During each 45-minute training session, participants localized a sound source whose position varied in azimuth and/or in elevation. At the start of each trial, CI users received no information about sound location, but after each response, feedback was given to enable error correction. Participants were divided into two groups: a multisensory feedback group (audiovisual spatial cue) and an unisensory group (visual spatial cue) who only received feedback in a wholly intact sensory modality. Training benefits were measured at each evaluation point using three tests: 3D sound localization in virtual reality, the French Matrix test, and the Speech, Spatial and other Qualities of Hearing questionnaire.

Results: The training was well accepted and all participants attended the whole rehabilitation program. Four training sessions spread across 2 weeks were insufficient to induce significant performance changes, whereas performance on all three tests improved after eight training sessions. Front-back confusions decreased from 32% to 14.1% ( p = 0.017); speech recognition threshold score from 1.5 dB to -0.7 dB signal-to-noise ratio ( p = 0.029) and eight CI users successfully achieved a negative signal-to-noise ratio. One month after the end of structured training, these performance improvements were still present, and quality of life was significantly improved for both self-reports of sound localization (from 5.3 to 6.7, p = 0.015) and speech understanding (from 5.2 to 5.9, p = 0.048).

Conclusions: This pilot study shows the feasibility and potential clinical relevance of this type of intervention involving a sensorial immersive environment and could pave the way for more systematic rehabilitation programs after cochlear implantation.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cochlear Implantation* / methods
  • Cochlear Implants*
  • Hearing / physiology
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Pilot Projects
  • Quality of Life
  • Sound Localization*
  • Speech Perception* / physiology