Antibiotics and outcomes of CF pulmonary exacerbations in children infected with MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

J Cyst Fibros. 2022 Aug 6;S1569-1993(22)00638-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2022.08.001. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Limited data exist to inform antibiotic selection among people with cystic fibrosis (CF) with airway infection by multiple CF-related microorganisms. This study aimed to determine among children with CF co-infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) if the addition of anti-MRSA antibiotics to antipseudomonal antibiotic treatment for pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) would be associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with antipseudomonal antibiotics alone.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study using data from the CF Foundation Patient Registry-Pediatric Health Information System linked dataset. The odds of returning to baseline lung function and having a subsequent PEx requiring intravenous antibiotics were compared between PEx treated with anti-MRSA and antipseudomonal antibiotics and those treated with antipseudomonal antibiotics alone, adjusting for confounding by indication using inverse probability of treatment weighting.

Results: 943 children with CF co-infected with MRSA and Pa contributed 2,989 PEx for analysis. Of these, 2,331 (78%) PEx were treated with both anti-MRSA and antipseudomonal antibiotics and 658 (22%) PEx were treated with antipseudomonal antibiotics alone. Compared with PEx treated with antipseudomonal antibiotics alone, the addition of anti-MRSA antibiotics to antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy was not associated with a higher odds of returning to ≥90% or ≥100% of baseline lung function or a lower odds of future PEx requiring intravenous antibiotics.

Conclusions: Children with CF co-infected with MRSA and Pa may not benefit from the addition of anti-MRSA antibiotics for PEx treatment. Prospective studies evaluating optimal antibiotic selection strategies for PEx treatment are needed to optimize clinical outcomes following PEx treatment.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Cystic fibrosis; MRSA; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Pulmonary exacerbations.