Treatment responses of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are known to be heterogeneous, posing challenges for risk scoring and treatment stratification. In this retrospective multi-cohort study, we investigated whether combining pyroptosis- and immune-related genes improves prognostic classification of AML patients. Using a robust gene pairing approach, which effectively eliminates batch effects across heterogeneous patient cohorts and transcriptomic data, we developed an immunity and pyroptosis-related prognostic (IPRP) signature that consists of 15 genes. Using 5 AML cohorts (n = 1327 patients total), we demonstrate that the IPRP score leads to more consistent and accurate survival prediction performance, compared with 10 existing signatures, and that IPRP scoring is widely applicable to various patient cohorts, treatment procedures and transcriptomic technologies. Compared to current standards for AML patient stratification, such as age or ELN2017 risk classification, we demonstrate an added prognostic value of the IPRP risk score for providing improved prediction of AML patients. Our web-tool implementation of the IPRP score and a simple 4-factor nomogram enables practical and robust risk scoring for AML patients. Even though developed for AML patients, our pan-cancer analyses demonstrate a wider application of the IPRP signature for prognostic prediction and analysis of tumor-immune interplay also in multiple solid tumors.
© 2022. The Author(s).