Moyamoya disease(MMD)is a chronic, occlusive cerebrovascular disease with unknown etiology, characterized by progressive stenosis of the internal carotid artery terminus and abnormal vascular network formation at the base of the brain. MMD has bimodal age distribution, with peaks in children and young adults, and surgical revascularization is a reasonable management choice for pediatric and adult patients with ischemic MMD. The superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis with indirect pial synangiosis(combined revascularization)is a preferred surgical procedure for adult and pediatric MMD patients, providing early cerebral hemodynamic improvement and long-term favorable outcomes. Pediatric patients with MMD can present intrinsic postoperative hemodynamic complications, such as watershed shift ischemia and transient global hypoperfusion, even after successful revascularization. Therefore, perioperative management based on the early hemodynamic study is critical to avoid surgical complications, including perioperative cerebral infarction.