NOTCH1 belongs to the NOTCH family of proteins that regulate cell fate and inflammatory responses. Somatic and germline NOTCH1 variants have been implicated in cancer, Adams-Oliver syndrome, and cardiovascular defects. We describe 7 unrelated patients grouped by the presence of leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and heterozygous de novo gain-of-function variants in NOTCH1. Immunologic profiling showed upregulated CSF IP-10, a cytokine secreted downstream of NOTCH1 signaling. Autopsy revealed extensive leukoencephalopathy and microangiopathy with vascular calcifications. This evidence implicates that heterozygous gain-of-function variants in NOTCH1 lead to a chronic central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory response resulting in a calcifying microangiopathy with leukoencephalopathy. ANN NEUROL 2022;92:895-901.
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