Phylogenetic and Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates from Argentina

Vet Res Commun. 2022 Dec;46(4):1121-1129. doi: 10.1007/s11259-022-09983-8. Epub 2022 Aug 11.


Paratuberculosis is a worldwide chronic enteric disease of ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). While MAP has been widely investigated all around the world, little is known about the different strains that circulate in each country. This study describes the genetic diversity of MAP isolates from different bovine and deer herds from Argentina, analyzed by Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA), as well as the phylogenetic relatedness between geographically distant isolates through Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) and core-genome analysis. A total of 90 MAP isolates were analyzed. The results showed seven different MLVA genotypes, with almost 75% of them belonging to pattern INMV 1, described in all the herds studied. WGS results suggested the presence of a common INMV 1 strain circulating throughout the country. Our results allow confirming the coexistence of different strains in time and space and the mixed infections identified in some animals. These observations suggest the absence of animal monitoring prior to introduction to the herds and the need for a control program in the country. This study represents the first to report WGS of MAP strains in Argentina.

Keywords: MLVA; Mycobacterium; Ruminants; WGS.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Argentina / epidemiology
  • Cattle
  • Cattle Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Cattle Diseases* / genetics
  • Deer* / genetics
  • Minisatellite Repeats / genetics
  • Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis* / genetics
  • Phylogeny