Classification of Skull Shape Deformities Related to Craniosynostosis on 3D Photogrammetry

J Craniofac Surg. 2023 Jan-Feb;34(1):312-317. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000008912. Epub 2022 Aug 11.


Implementation of the Utrecht Cranial Shape Quantificator (UCSQ) classification method on 3D photogrammetry in patients with different types of craniosynostosis is the aim of the present study. Five children (age <1 year) of every group of the common craniosynostoses (scaphocephaly, brachycephaly, trigonocephaly, right-sided and left-sided anterior plagiocephaly) were randomly included. The program 3-Matic (v13.0) was used to import and analyze the included 3dMD photos. Three external landmarks were placed. Using the landmarks, a base plane was created, as well as a plane 4 cm superior to the base plane. Using UCSQ, we created sinusoid curves of the patients, the resulting curves were analyzed and values were extracted for calculations. Results per patient were run through a diagnostic flowchart in order to determine correctness of the flowchart when using 3D photogrammetry. Each of the patients (n=25) of the different craniosynostosis subgroups is diagnosed correctly based on the different steps in the flowchart. This study proposes and implements a diagnostic approach of craniosynostosis based on 3D photogrammetry. By using a diagnostic flowchart based on specific characteristics for every type of craniosynostosis related to specific skull deformities, diagnosis can be established. All variables are expressed in number and are therefore objective.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Craniosynostoses* / diagnostic imaging
  • Craniosynostoses* / surgery
  • Facial Bones
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Photogrammetry / methods
  • Plagiocephaly*
  • Skull