Hepatocellular carcinoma and immunotherapy: Beyond immune checkpoint inhibitors

World J Gastrointest Oncol. 2022 Jun 15;14(6):1210-1212. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v14.i6.1210.


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest and most common malignancies of the liver. Considering the rich immune background of carcinogenesis in HCC, efforts have been focused on further understanding the role of the immune system in tumor suppression and promotion. The utilization of immunotherapy in HCC has led to encouraging results that has translated to longer survival and better quality of life among patients. The development of novel HCC-tailored regimens such as vaccine therapy and adoptive cellular therapy coupled with a deeper understanding of biomarkers predictive of the response to immunotherapy will lead to better treatment outcomes.

Keywords: Adoptive cellular therapy; Biomarkers; Cancer vaccines; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Immunotherapy.