Interim Guidance for Prevention and Treatment of Monkeypox in Persons with HIV Infection - United States, August 2022

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 Aug 12;71(32):1023-1028. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7132e4.


Monkeypox virus, an orthopoxvirus sharing clinical features with smallpox virus, is endemic in several countries in Central and West Africa. The last reported outbreak in the United States, in 2003, was linked to contact with infected prairie dogs that had been housed or transported with African rodents imported from Ghana (1). Since May 2022, the World Health Organization (WHO) has reported a multinational outbreak of monkeypox centered in Europe and North America, with approximately 25,000 cases reported worldwide; the current outbreak is disproportionately affecting gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) (2). Monkeypox was declared a public health emergency in the United States on August 4, 2022. Available summary surveillance data from the European Union, England, and the United States indicate that among MSM patients with monkeypox for whom HIV status is known, 28%-51% have HIV infection (3-10). Treatment of monkeypox with tecovirimat as a first-line agent is available through CDC for compassionate use through an investigational drug protocol. No identified drug interactions would preclude coadministration of tecovirimat with antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection. Pre- and postexposure prophylaxis can be considered with JYNNEOS vaccine, if indicated. Although data are limited for monkeypox in patients with HIV, prompt diagnosis, treatment, and prevention might reduce the risk for adverse outcomes and limit monkeypox spread. Prevention and treatment considerations will be updated as more information becomes available.

MeSH terms

  • Ghana
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections* / epidemiology
  • HIV Infections* / prevention & control
  • Homosexuality, Male
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mpox (monkeypox)* / epidemiology
  • Sexual and Gender Minorities*
  • United States / epidemiology