Content of Pb and Zn in Sediments and Hydrobionts as Ecological Markers for Pollution Assessment of Freshwater Objects in Bulgaria-A Review

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Aug 4;19(15):9600. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19159600.


The purpose of this review is to describe the contents of Pb and Zn in sediments and hydrobionts as ecological markers for the pollution assessment of freshwater objects in Bulgaria, and the data are compared with other countries and regions. Symmetry was found regarding the levels of Zn in the sediment of the Ovcharitsa and Zhrebchevo dams, which were twice the MAC for arable land (Regulation № 3 of Bulgarian legislation). Symmetry was also observed between the results for Zn and Pb in the studied sediments, and the "favorites" in terms of content were the samples from Zhrebchevo Dam and, especially, from Ovcharitsa Dam. Asymmetry was established in the accumulation of Zn in the livers of carps inhabiting Topolnitsa Dam in comparison with these in Ovcharitsa Dam. A similar asymmetry was observed for lead. The analysis of the muscles and livers of the studied fish showed an asymmetry in the accumulation of zinc, and this process was more intense in the liver. Symmetry was found in the accumulation of Pb in the liver and muscle tissues of the carp from the studied water bodies.

Keywords: accumulation; fish; freshwater sites; lead; pollution; zinc.

Publication types

  • Review