Neuroprotection of Cannabidiol, Its Synthetic Derivatives and Combination Preparations against Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation in Neurological Disorders

Molecules. 2022 Aug 4;27(15):4961. doi: 10.3390/molecules27154961.

Abstract

The lack of effective treatment for neurological disorders has encouraged the search for novel therapeutic strategies. Remarkably, neuroinflammation provoked by the activated microglia is emerging as an important therapeutic target for neurological dysfunction in the central nervous system. In the pathological context, the hyperactivation of microglia leads to neuroinflammation through the release of neurotoxic molecules, such as reactive oxygen species, proteinases, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major pharmacologically active phytocannabinoids derived from Cannabis sativa L. CBD has promising therapeutic effects based on mounting clinical and preclinical studies of neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, ischemic brain injuries, neuropathic pain, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. A number of preclinical studies suggested that CBD exhibited potent inhibitory effects of neurotoxic molecules and inflammatory modulators, highlighting its remarkable therapeutic potential for the treatment of numerous neurological disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of action underpinning CBD's effects on neuroinflammation appear to be complex and are poorly understood. This review summarises the anti-neuroinflammatory activities of CBD against various neurological disorders with a particular focus on their main molecular mechanisms of action, which were related to the downregulation of NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS, TLR4-NFκB and IFN-β-JAK-STAT pathways. We also illustrate the pharmacological action of CBD's derivatives focusing on their anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective effects for neurological disorders. We included the studies that demonstrated synergistic enhanced anti-neuroinflammatory activity using CBD and other biomolecules. The studies that are summarised in the review shed light on the development of CBD, including its derivatives and combination preparations as novel therapeutic options for the prevention and/or treatment of neurological disorders where neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathological components.

Keywords: cannabidiol; cannabidiol derivatives; microglia; neuroinflammation; neurological disorders; neuroprotection.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cannabidiol* / pharmacology
  • Cannabidiol* / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Microglia
  • Nervous System Diseases* / drug therapy
  • Neuroinflammatory Diseases
  • Neuroprotection

Substances

  • Cannabidiol