Introduction: Anorexia nervosa (AN) increases the risk of impaired bone health, low areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and subsequent fractures. This prospective study investigated the long-term effects of bone and mineral metabolism on bone and biomarkers in 22 women with AN.
Materials and methods: Body composition and aBMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Total and free 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), C-terminal collagen cross-links (CTX), osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), leptin, sclerostin, and oxidized/non-oxidized parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed before and after 12 weeks of intensive nutrition therapy and again 3 years later. An age-matched comparison group of 17 healthy women was recruited for the 3-year follow-up.
Results: Body mass index (BMI) and fat mass increased from baseline to 3 years in women with AN. Sclerostin decreased during nutrition therapy and further over 3 years, indicating reduced bone loss. CTX was elevated at baseline and after 12 weeks but decreased over 3 years. BALP increased during nutrition therapy and stabilized over 3 years. Free 25OHD was stable during treatment but decreased over 3 years. Non-oxidized PTH was stable during treatment but increased over 3 years. Trabecular volumetric BMD in AN patients decreased during the first 12 weeks and over 3 years despite stable BMI and bone biomarkers implying increased BMD.
Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of early detection and organized long-term follow-up of bone health in young women with a history of AN.
Keywords: DXA; Eating disorder; Osteoporosis; Sclerostin; Vitamin D.
© 2022. The Japanese Society Bone and Mineral Research.