Background: IgE-epitope profiling can accurately diagnose clinical peanut allergy.
Objective: We sought to determine whether sequential (linear) epitope-specific IgE (ses-IgE) profiling can provide probabilities of tolerating discrete doses of peanut protein in allergic subjects undergoing double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges utilizing PRACTALL dosing.
Methods: Sixty four ses-IgE antibodies were quantified in blood samples using a bead-based epitope assay. A pair of ses-IgEs that predicts Cumulative Tolerated Dose (CTD) was determined using regression in 75 subjects from the discovery cohort. This epitope-based predictor was validated on 331 subjects from five independent cohorts (ages 4-25 years). Subjects were grouped based on their predicted values and probabilities of reactions at each CTD threshold were calculated.
Results: In discovery, an algorithm using two ses-IgE antibodies was correlated with CTDs (rho = 0.61, p < .05); this correlation was 0.51 (p < .05) in validation. Using the ses-IgE-based predictor, subjects were assigned into "high," "moderate," or "low" dose-reactivity groups. On average, subjects in the "high" group were four times more likely to tolerate a specific dose, compared with the "low" group. For example, predicted probabilities of tolerating 4, 14, 44, and 144 or 444 mg in the "low" group were 92%, 77%, 53%, 29%, and 10% compared with 98%, 95%, 94%, 88%, and 73% in the "high" group.
Conclusions: Accurate predictions of food challenge thresholds are complex due to factors including limited responder sample sizes at each dose and variations in study-specific challenge protocols. Despite these limitations, an epitope-based predictor was able to accurately identify CTDs and may provide a useful surrogate for peanut challenges.
Keywords: CTD; DBPCFC; IgE; OFC; allergy diagnosis; epitope; peanut allergy.
© 2022 The Authors. Allergy published by European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.