Incidence and risk factors for early and late reoperation following lumbar fusion surgery

J Orthop Surg Res. 2022 Aug 12;17(1):385. doi: 10.1186/s13018-022-03273-4.


Study design: Retrospective cohort study.

Purpose: The aim of our study was to determine the rates and indications of reoperations following primary lumbar fusion, as well as the independent risk factors for early and late reoperation.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent lumbar fusion surgery between January 2017 and March 2020. All patients were followed up for more than 2 years. Characteristics, laboratory tests, primary diagnosis and surgery-related variables were compared among the early reoperation (< 3 months), the late reoperation (> 3 months) and the non-reoperation groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for early and late reoperations.

Results: Of 821 patients included in our studies, 34 patients underwent early reoperation, and 36 patients underwent late reoperation. The cumulative reoperation rate was about 4.1% (95% CI 3.8-4.5%) at 3 months, 6.2% (95% CI 5.9-6.5%) at 1 year and 8.2% (95% CI 8.0-8.5%) at 3 years. Multivariable analysis indicated that osteoporosis (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% CI 1.2-10.5, p = 0.02) and diabetes (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.5, p = 0.04) were independently associated with early reoperation and multilevel fusion (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.4, p = 0.03) was independently associated with late reoperation.

Conclusions: The most common reasons for early reoperation and late operation were surgical site infection and adjacent segment diseases, respectively. Osteoporosis and diabetes were independent risk factors for early reoperation, and multilevel fusion was independent risk factor for late reoperation. Surgeons should pay more attention to these patients, and future studies should consider the effects of follow-up periods on results.

Keywords: Complications; Lumbar fusion; Reoperation; Risk factors.

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / surgery
  • Osteoporosis* / etiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Spinal Fusion* / adverse effects