Association between use of novel glucose-lowering drugs and COVID-19 hospitalization and death in patients with type 2 diabetes: a nationwide registry analysis

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother. 2022 Aug 13;pvac044. doi: 10.1093/ehjcvp/pvac044. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Aims: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is associated with worse prognosis. We separately investigated the associations between the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i), and the risk of COVID-19 hospitalization and death.

Methods and results: Patients with T2DM registered in the Swedish National Patient Registry and alive on 1st February 2020 were included. "Incident severe COVID-19" was defined as the first hospitalization and/or death from COVID-19. A modified Poisson regression approach was applied to a 1:1 propensity score-matched population receiving vs. not receiving SGLT2i, GLP-1 RA and DPP-4i to analyze the associations between their use and I) incident severe COVID-19, II) risk of 30-day mortality in patients hospitalized for COVID-19.Among 344,413 patients, 39,172 (11%) were treated with SGLT2i, 34,290 (10%) with GLP-1 RA and 53,044 (15%) with DPP-4i; 9,538 (2.8%) had incident severe COVID-19 by 15th May 2021. SGLT2i and DPP-4i were associated with a 10% and 11% higher risk of incident severe COVID-19, respectively, whereas there was no association for GLP-1 RA. DPP-4i were also associated with a 10% higher 30-day mortality in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, whereas there was no association for SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA.

Conclusion: SGLT2i and DPP-4i use was associated with higher risk of incident severe COVID-19. DPP-4i use was associated with higher 30-day mortality in patients with COVID-19, whereas SGLT2i use was not. No increased risk for any outcome was observed with GLP-1 RA.

Keywords: COVID-19; dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i); glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists; hospitalization; mortality; sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors.