Chlamydia Trachomatis/Neisseria Gonorrhea Retesting Among Adolescents and Young Adults in a Primary Care Network

J Adolesc Health. 2022 Nov;71(5):545-551. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2022.06.014. Epub 2022 Aug 11.


Purpose: Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhea (CT/NG) retesting three months after diagnosis is a guideline-recommended strategy to detect re-infections. Adolescents and young adults are priority populations in the U.S. Sexually Transmitted Infections National Strategic Plan, but there is a lack of research examining CT/NG retesting among these populations. This study describes retesting following CT/NG diagnosis among adolescent and young adult patients at Title X and non-Title X clinics and measures the association of patient-level factors with CT/NG retesting.

Methods: We evaluated electronic medical records from 2014 to 2020 from an academic urban-suburban primary care network. The primary outcome was retesting, defined as a diagnostic test for CT or NG ordered 8-16 weeks after index diagnosis. Mixed effects logistic regression modeling stratified by Title X funding was conducted to evaluate the association of patient-level factors with CT/NT retesting.

Results: Overall, 23.5% (n = 731) of patients were retested within 8-16 weeks following index CT/NG diagnosis. A significantly greater proportion of Title X patients were retested compared to non-Title X patients. Males were significantly less likely to be retested compared to females, and the proportion of patients retested decreased significantly over the study period.

Discussion: Guideline-recommended retesting following CT/NG diagnosis was low in this young primary care cohort, especially among male and non-Title X clinic patients. Decreases in CT/NG retesting over the study period may be contributing to worsening of the STI epidemic. Our results provide insights into CT/NG retesting that can inform efforts to end the STI epidemic.

Keywords: Adolescence; Primary care; Retesting; Sexually transmitted infections.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Chlamydia Infections* / diagnosis
  • Chlamydia Infections* / epidemiology
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Female
  • Gonorrhea* / diagnosis
  • Gonorrhea* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neisseria
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Primary Health Care
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases*
  • Young Adult