The use of cardiac implantable electronic devices, including permanent pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators, and cardiac resynchronization therapy, has dramatically increased in recent years. The interaction between the device lead and tricuspid valve leaflets is a potential cause of tricuspid regurgitation that in turn has an impact on morbidity and mortality. Echocardiography is necessary to grade tricuspid regurgitation severity. The use of three-dimensional imaging helps determine whether the device lead is interfering with normal leaflet coaptation. Early identification of lead-related tricuspid regurgitation is critical to select the optimal treatment, which may include lead extraction or even tricuspid valve repair or replacement in severe cases. The aims of this review are to provide a thorough assessment of the evidence about lead-associated tricuspid regurgitation and the benefits of using three-dimensional echocardiography with some technical considerations and to propose a treatment algorithm.
Keywords: 3D echocardiography; Artificial cardiac pacing; Device lead; Right ventricular dysfunction; Tricuspid regurgitation.
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