This study examined the effects of respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) on ventilatory and endurance performance among moderately trained, male cyclists. Nine subjects initially completed two cycling VO2 max tests, two endurance cycling tests for time at 95% VO2 max, a 15-s MVV test, and an endurance breathing test for time at 100% MVV. Four subjects then underwent 3 weeks of strenuous RMET while five served as controls. Mean posttest 15-s MVV and endurance breathing time were significantly higher in the RMET group (243 +/- 14 l X min-1 and 804 +/- 94 s) than in the control group (205 +/- 6 l X min-1 and 48 +/- 8 s). No significant group differences in VO2 max or endurance cycling time at 95% VO2 max were observed following RMET. Results of this exploratory study indicated that RMET improved ventilatory power and endurance, but did not alter VO2 max or endurance cycling performance among moderately trained, male cyclists.