Sexual history of human monkeypox patients seen at a tertiary hospital in Bayelsa, Nigeria

Int J STD AIDS. 2022 Sep;33(10):928-932. doi: 10.1177/09564624221119335. Epub 2022 Aug 15.


Background: Human monkeypox (HMPX) is currently spreading outside endemic countries in Africa and the majority of those affected are gay and bisexual men within interconnected sexual networks. We investigated the sexual history of HMPX cases seen at a tertiary hospital in Bayelsa State during the 2017-2018 outbreak in Nigeria.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted between 20 October 2017 and 2 January 2019 among adult confirmed/probable HMPX cases. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the sexual history of participants, including sexual contact in relation to the first symptom, and high-risk behaviours (HRB) such as a history of condomless casual sex, multiple sexual partners, and transactional sex.Results: Of 21 patients, 16 (76.2%) gave consent to participate in the study: age range of 22-43 years, 75% males, three (18.8%) HIV-1 positive, and 13 (81.2%) with genital ulcers. Nine (56.2%) of participants reported HRB, and all were male heterosexuals. Eight of the 16 participants (50%) reported having sex within a month before their first symptom, and five (62.5%) of this number reported HRB. There were two cases of sex with a partner with a non-genital rash, and a spouse who developed a vulval ulcer four days after sex with her husband.Conclusion: Our results support the role of sexual contact in the transmission of monkeypox among some confirmed cases from Nigeria. However, future elaborate studies are required to confirm if sexual behaviour and sexual transmission are associated with HMPX in Nigeria.

Keywords: Nigeria; genital ulcers; high risk behaviour; monkeypox; sexual behaviour; sexual transmitted infections.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • HIV Infections* / complications
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mpox (monkeypox)* / complications
  • Mpox (monkeypox)* / epidemiology
  • Nigeria / epidemiology
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Sexual Partners
  • Tertiary Care Centers
  • Ulcer
  • Young Adult