Association of body composition in early pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis

PLoS One. 2022 Aug 15;17(8):e0271068. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0271068. eCollection 2022.


Introduction: Body composition as dynamic indices constantly changes in pregnancy. The use of body composition indices in the early stages of pregnancy has recently been considered. Therefore, the current meta-analysis study was conducted to investigate the relationship between body composition in the early stages of pregnancy and gestational diabetes.

Method: Valid databases searched for papers published from 2010 to December 2021 were based on PRISMA guideline. Newcastle Ottawa was used to assess the quality of the studies. For all analyses, STATA 14.0 was used. Mean difference (MD) of anthropometric indices was calculated between the GDM and Non-GDM groups. Pooled MD was estimated by "Metan" command, and heterogeneity was defined using Cochran's Q test of heterogeneity, and I 2 index was used to quantify heterogeneity.

Results: Finally, 29 studies with a sample size of 56438 met the criteria for entering the meta-analysis. Pooled MD of neck circumference, hip circumference, waist hip ratio, and visceral adipose tissue depth were, respectively, 1.00 cm (95% CI: 0.79 to 1.20) [N = 5; I^2: 0%; p: 0.709], 7.79 cm (95% CI: 2.27 to 13.31) [N = 5; I2: 84.3%; P<0.001], 0.03 (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.04) [N = 9; I2: 89.2%; P<0.001], and 7.74 cm (95% CI: 0.11 to 1.36) [N = 4; I^2: 95.8%; P<0.001].

Conclusion: Increased neck circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference, arm circumference, waist to hip ratio, visceral fat depth, subcutaneous fat depth, and short stature increased the possibility of developing gestational diabetes. These indices can accurately, cost-effectively, and affordably assess the occurrence of gestational diabetes, thus preventing many consequences with early detection of gestational diabetes.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anthropometry
  • Body Composition
  • Body Mass Index
  • Diabetes, Gestational* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Waist Circumference
  • Waist-Hip Ratio

Grants and funding

This study was funded by Alborz University of Medical Sciences and the funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.