Nanocomposite bioinks for 3D bioprinting

Acta Biomater. 2022 Oct 1;151:45-69. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2022.08.014. Epub 2022 Aug 13.

Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an advanced technology to fabricate artificial 3D tissue constructs containing cells and hydrogels for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Nanocomposite reinforcement endows hydrogels with superior properties and tailored functionalities. A broad range of nanomaterials, including silicon-based, ceramic-based, cellulose-based, metal-based, and carbon-based nanomaterials, have been incorporated into hydrogel networks with encapsulated cells for improved performances. This review emphasizes the recent developments of cell-laden nanocomposite bioinks for 3D bioprinting, focusing on their reinforcement effects and mechanisms, including viscosity, shear-thinning property, printability, mechanical properties, structural integrity, and biocompatibility. The cell-material interactions are discussed to elaborate on the underlying mechanisms between the cells and the nanomaterials. The biomedical applications of cell-laden nanocomposite bioinks are summarized with a focus on bone and cartilage tissue engineering. Finally, the limitations and challenges of current cell-laden nanocomposite bioinks are identified. The prospects are concluded in designing multi-component bioinks with multi-functionality for various biomedical applications. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: 3D bioprinting, an emerging technology of additive manufacturing, has been one of the most innovative tools for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Recent developments of cell-laden nanocomposite bioinks for 3D bioprinting, and cell-materials interactions are the subject of this review paper. The reinforcement effects and mechanisms of nanocomposites on viscosity, printability and biocompatibility of bioinks and 3D printed scaffolds are addressed mainly for bone and cartilage tissue engineering. It provides detailed information for further designing and optimizing multi-component bioinks with multi-functionality for specialized biomedical applications.

Keywords: 3D bioprinting; Bioink; Biomedical applications; Cell-laden; Nanocomposite.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bioprinting* / methods
  • Carbon
  • Cellulose
  • Hydrogels / chemistry
  • Nanocomposites*
  • Printing, Three-Dimensional
  • Silicon
  • Tissue Engineering
  • Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry

Substances

  • Hydrogels
  • Carbon
  • Cellulose
  • Silicon