Pyrvinium is a quinoline-derived cyanine dye and an approved anti-helminthic drug reported to inhibit WNT signaling and have anti-proliferative effects in various cancer cell lines. To further understand the mechanism by which pyrvinium is cytotoxic, we conducted a pooled genome-wide CRISPR loss-of-function screen in the human HAP1 cell model. The top drug-gene sensitizer interactions implicated the malate-aspartate and glycerol-3-phosphate shuttles as mediators of cytotoxicity to mitochondrial complex I inhibition including pyrvinium. By contrast, perturbation of the poorly characterized gene C1orf115/RDD1 resulted in strong resistance to the cytotoxic effects of pyrvinium through dysregulation of the major drug efflux pump ABCB1/MDR1. Interestingly, C1orf115/RDD1 was found to physically associate with ABCB1/MDR1 through proximity-labeling experiments and perturbation of C1orf115 led to mis-localization of ABCB1/MDR1. Our results are consistent with a model whereby C1orf115 modulates drug efflux through regulation of the major drug exporter ABCB1/MDR1.
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