Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol in the Hispaniolan Amazon Parrot ( Amazona ventralis)

J Avian Med Surg. 2022 Aug;36(2):121-127. doi: 10.1647/20-00076.


The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol (CBD), a potential treatment option that may alleviate pain in companion animals and humans, in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis). A pilot study administered a single oral dose of CBD in hemp oil at 10 mg/kg to 2 birds and 20 mg/kg to 2 birds. Because the maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) for these doses were 5.5 and 13 ng/mL, respectively, and the serum half-life was 2 hours for both groups, the doses were considered too low for clinical use in this species. Therefore, a study was designed in which 14 healthy 12-14-year-old parrots of both sexes and weighing 0.24-0.35 kg (mean, 0.28 kg) were enrolled. Seven birds were administered 60 mg/kg CBD PO, and 7 birds were administered 120 mg/kg CBD PO. Blood samples were obtained at time 0, and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10 hours posttreatment in a balanced incomplete block design. Quantification of plasma CBD concentrations was determined by use of a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. The areas under the curve (h·ng/mL) were 518 and 1863, Cmax (ng/ mL) were 213 and 562, and times to achieve Cmax (hours) were 0.5 and 4 for the 60 and 120 mg/kg doses, respectively. The serum half-life could not be determined in the 60 mg/kg treatment, but was 1.28 hours at 120 mg/kg. Adverse effects were not observed in any bird. The highly variable results and short half-life of the drug in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, even at high doses, suggests that this drug formulation was inconsistent in achieving targeted concentrations as reported in other animal species.

Keywords: Amazona ventralis; CBD; Hispaniolan Amazon parrot; avian; cannabidiol; cannabinoids; pain; pharmacokinetics.

MeSH terms

  • Amazona*
  • Animals
  • Area Under Curve
  • Cannabidiol*
  • Cannabis
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pilot Projects
  • Plant Extracts


  • Plant Extracts
  • Cannabidiol
  • hempseed oil