Markers of Kidney Tubular Secretion and Risk of Adverse Events in SPRINT Participants with CKD

J Am Soc Nephrol. 2022 Oct;33(10):1915-1926. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2022010117. Epub 2022 Aug 16.


Background: Kidney tubular secretion is an essential mechanism for clearing many common antihypertensive drugs and other metabolites and toxins. It is unknown whether novel measures of tubular secretion are associated with adverse events (AEs) during hypertension treatment.

Methods: Among 2089 SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) participants with baseline eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, we created a summary secretion score by averaging across the standardized spot urine-to-plasma ratios of ten novel endogenous tubular secretion measures, with lower urine-to-plasma ratios reflecting worse tubular secretion. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate associations between the secretion score and risk of a composite of prespecified serious AEs (hypotension, syncope, bradycardia, AKI, electrolyte abnormalities, and injurious falls). The follow-up protocol for SPRINT routinely assessed two laboratory monitoring AEs (hyperkalemia and hypokalemia).

Results: Overall, 30% of participants experienced at least one AE during a median follow-up of 3.0 years. In multivariable models adjusted for eGFR and albuminuria, lower (worse) secretion scores at baseline were associated with greater risk of the composite AE outcome (hazard ratio per 1-SD lower secretion score, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.27). In analyses of the individual AEs, lower secretion score was associated with significantly greater risk of AKI, serious electrolyte abnormalities, and ambulatory hyperkalemia. Associations were similar across randomized treatment assignment groups.

Conclusion: Among SPRINT participants with CKD, worse tubular secretion was associated with greater risk of AEs, independent of eGFR and albuminuria.

Keywords: adverse events; biomarker; hypertension; tubular secretion.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury* / complications
  • Albuminuria
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Electrolytes
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Hyperkalemia* / complications
  • Hypertension* / complications
  • Kidney
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / complications
  • Risk Factors


  • Electrolytes