Diagnostic applications of microsphere-based flow cytometry: A review

Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2022 Oct;247(20):1852-1861. doi: 10.1177/15353702221113856. Epub 2022 Aug 16.


Microsphere-based flow cytometry is a highly sensitive emerging technology for specific detection and clinical analysis of antigens, antibodies, and nucleic acids of interest. In this review, studies that focused on the application of flow cytometry as a viable alternative for the investigation of infectious diseases were analyzed. Many of the studies involve research aimed at epidemiological surveillance, vaccine candidates and early diagnosis, non-infectious diseases, specifically cancer, and emphasize the simultaneous detection of biomarkers for early diagnosis, with accurate results in a non-invasive approach. The possibility of carrying out multiplexed assays affords this technique high versatility and performance, which is evidenced in a series of clinical studies that have verified the ability to detect several molecules in low concentrations and with minimal sample volume. As such, we demonstrate that microsphere-based flow cytometry presents itself as a promising technique that can be adopted as a fundamental element in the development of new diagnostic methods for a number of diseases.

Keywords: Flow cytometry; cancer; diagnosis; immunology; infectious diseases; microspheres.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antigens* / analysis
  • Biomarkers
  • Communicable Diseases*
  • Flow Cytometry / methods
  • Humans
  • Microspheres


  • Antigens
  • Biomarkers