Nurses' perception and compliance with personal protective equipment and hand hygiene during the third wave of COVID-19 pandemic

J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2022 Aug 18;97(1):14. doi: 10.1186/s42506-022-00109-1.

Abstract

Background: Healthcare workers' (HCWs) compliance with infection prevention and control (IPC) measures during the COVID-19 pandemic is crucial to reducing the spread of infection to their colleagues, families, and community. This study assessed the risk perception and compliance with personal protective equipment (PPE) usage, hand hygiene, and specific IPC measures and explored the factors associated with compliance among nurses during the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt.

Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Alexandria Main University Hospital (AMUH) in Alexandria city from May to August 2021, where 354 nurses were included with a response rate of 94.9%. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted.

Results: The overall compliance with PPE usage, hand hygiene, and IPC measures was 81.9%. The mean risk perception score was 40.9 ± 3.3. More than 95% of nurses were aware of the high risk of COVID-19 infection at their workplace, the serious consequences of the disease, and the risk that can be minimized by using PPE, whereas a relatively low percentage of nurses believed that the risk of COVID-19 infection could be reduced by using a surgical mask (19.2%) or gloves (50.5%). Good compliance was independently predicted by risk perception (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.13, 1.39), and knowledge about PPE usage and hand hygiene (OR = 3.53; 95%CI = 2.40, 5.19). Facilitators of compliance with the PPE usage were attending suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases in their hospital ([Formula: see text] = 9.82), comfort to use the PPE ([Formula: see text] = 9.16), availability of PPE ([Formula: see text] = 8.96), hospital policy ([Formula: see text] = 8.74), and senior compliance ([Formula: see text] = 6.5).

Conclusions: Nurses at AMUH reported high risk perceptions. The rate of compliance with PPE usage, hand hygiene, and IPC measures was 81.9%. The personal risk perception and knowledge about the PPE usage and hand hygiene are the keys to improving compliance in a healthcare facility.

Keywords: COVID-19; Compliance; Healthcare workers; Perception; Personal protective equipment.