The genomes of two nitrogen-fixing Frankia strains, AgB32 and AgKG'84/4, were isolated from spore-containing (spore+) and spore-free (spore-) root nodules of Alnus glutinosa, but they did not sporulate upon reinfection. The two strains are described as representatives of two novel candidate species. Phylogenomic and ANI analyses indicate that each strain represents a novel species within cluster 1, with genome sizes of 6.3 and 6.7 Mb smaller than or similar to those of other cultivated Alnus-infective cluster 1 strains. Genes essential for nitrogen-fixation, clusters of orthologous genes, secondary metabolite clusters and transcriptional regulators analyzed by comparative genomic analyses were typical of those from Alnus-infective cluster 1 cultivated strains in both genomes. Compared to other cultivated Alnus-infective strains with large genomes, those of AgB32 and AgKG'84/4 had lost 380 or 409 genes, among which one hup cluster, one shc gene and the gvp cluster, which indicates genome erosion is taking place in these two strains.
Keywords: Actinorhizal symbiosis; Frankia; biosynthetic gene clusters; genome; nitrogen-fixing frankiae.
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