A comparative analysis of endoscopic sinus surgery versus biologics for treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2023 Feb;13(2):116-128. doi: 10.1002/alr.23059. Epub 2022 Sep 4.


Background: Comparative effectiveness research between endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and biologic therapy for severe chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) is a nascent field as new therapeutic modalities become clinically available.

Methods: A prospective, multicenter cohort of CRSwNP patients, undergoing ESS between 2011 and 2019, were compared to phase-3 biologic trial data. Patients undergoing ESS received baseline nasal endoscopy quantified via Lund-Kennedy (LK) grading. Patients meeting inclusion criteria, modified from Dupilumab-LIBERTY-NP-24&52, omalizumab-POLYP-1&2, and Mepolizumab-SYNAPSE clinical trials, were included in this study. Baseline characteristics and outcome measures were compared between these cohorts at 24 weeks and 52 weeks, when possible.

Results: A total of 111 CRSwNP patients met modified inclusion criteria. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline age, sex, asthma status, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease status, smell identification, LK-polyp score, and Lund-Mackay computed tomography (CT) scores between ESS and biologic groups. At 24 weeks, ESS demonstrated significantly greater improvements in 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) compared to one (of two) dupilumab trials (p < 0.05) and both omalizumab trials (p < 0.001). ESS associated with significantly lower nasal polyp scores (NPS) compared to dupilumab (p < 0.001) and omalizumab (p < 0.001), despite comparable improvements in smell identification (p > 0.05). At 52 weeks, ESS resulted in statistically similar improvement in SNOT-22 scores compared to dupilumab (p = 0.21), but NPS remained significantly lower in the ESS group compared to dupilumab (p < 0.001) and mepolizumab (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: At 24 weeks and 52 weeks, ESS offers comparable SNOT-22 improvements compared to dupilumab. ESS and dupilumab offer comparable improvement in smell identification at 24 weeks. Compared to omalizumab, ESS offers superior SNOT-22 improvements. ESS offers significantly greater reductions in polyp size compared to omalizumab, dupilumab, and mepolizumab therapies.

Keywords: chronic disease; chronic rhinosinusitis; endoscopic sinus surgery; eosinophilic rhinitis; nasal polyposis; outcome assessment (health care); quality of life; sinusitis.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Biological Products* / therapeutic use
  • Chronic Disease
  • Endoscopy / methods
  • Humans
  • Nasal Polyps* / surgery
  • Omalizumab / therapeutic use
  • Prospective Studies
  • Rhinitis* / surgery
  • Sinusitis* / surgery
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Omalizumab
  • Biological Products