Purpose: Although international guidelines exist, the clinical heterogeneity of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) and the increasing availability of new and repurposed drugs (e.g., fenfluramine and cannabidiol) requires a practical guide to patient management in the clinical context. We report the results of a consensus survey among 42 Italian experts in the diagnosis and treatment of LGS.
Methods: The consensus procedure followed a modified Delphi approach. Statements were formulated, based on the most recent published evidence and the clinicians' personal experience, then discussed, and agreed upon by the experts through a two-round voting procedure. Approval of a statement was reached with an average score ≥7.
Results: Thirteen statements dealing with three main topics (i.e., clinical diagnosis and prognosis, impact on the Quality of Life (QoL), and treatment strategies) were generated. Six statements achieved a level of agreement sufficient for approval on the first voting round. Following the discussion and a few consequent amendments, most of the statements increased their level of agreement and all 13 were approved.
Conclusions: Overall, the statements draw a slightly more benign picture of this rare and severe disease, highlighting the possibility of remission - albeit modest -, an apparent trend towards lower mortality, and the availability of several effective drugs, to which greater accessibility would be hoped for. Valproate remains a major therapeutic option in LGS patients although lamotrigine, rufinamide, topiramate, cannabidiol, and clobazam are popular therapeutic options in Italy, allowing for a tailor-made antiseizure therapy.
Keywords: Antiseizure medications; Consensus; Lennox-Gastaut syndrome; Pediatric epilepsy.
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