Cardiovascular complications and predictors of mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a cross-sectional study from the Indian subcontinent

Trop Med Health. 2022 Aug 18;50(1):55. doi: 10.1186/s41182-022-00449-w.


Background: COVID-19 has spread rapidly across the world, producing significant morbidity and mortality. We investigated the cardiovascular complications and association of laboratory parameters with severity and mortality predictors in COVID-19 hospitalized patients.

Methods: Between May 2020 and June 2021, 730 COVID-19 patients were included in this retrospective observational study in the Coastal Karnataka region of South India. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), myocarditis, arrhythmias, and all-cause mortality were reported as cardiovascular consequences. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR), serum creatinine, D-dimer, troponin T, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP), serum ferritin, and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were among the laboratory parameters measured.

Results: Most common electrocardiogram (ECG) changes were prolonged QTc interval (45.6%) followed by ST-T changes (40.7%) and sinus tachycardia (24.2%). 9.2% patients presented with ACS, with 38.8% having ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 61.2% having non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). In non-survivors, NLR (p < 0.001) and PLR (p = 0.001) were significantly higher. Multivariable regression analysis showed that age (OR:1.019, 95% CI 1.003-1.034; p = 0.017), acute kidney injury (OR:3.562, 95% CI 1.737-7.301; p = 0.001), white blood cell count (WBC) (OR = 1.100, 95% CI 1.035-1.169; p = 0.002), platelet count (OR = 0.994, 95% CI 0.990-0.997; p = 0.001), PLR (OR = 1.002, 95% CI 1.000-1.004; p = 0.023) and severe COVID-19 (OR = 9.012, 95% CI 3.844-21.129; p = 0.001) were independent predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients.

Conclusions: Age, WBC count, neutrophil%, NLR, PLR, creatinine, D-dimer, ferritin, LDH, tachycardia, and lymphocytes% strongly correlated with the severity of the disease. Age, acute kidney injury, elevated WBC count, a greater PLR, low platelet count, and COVID-19 severity were independent predictors of mortality.

Keywords: Acute coronary syndrome; COVID-19; Cardiovascular complications; Coronavirus; Myocarditis; Neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR); Platelet–lymphocyte ratio (PLR); Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2).