Nephrotoxicity of Vancomycin in Combination with Beta-lactam Agents: Ceftolozane-tazobactam vs. Piperacillin-tazobactam

Clin Infect Dis. 2022 Aug 19;ciac670. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciac670. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Vancomycin (VAN)-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) is increased when VAN is combined with certain beta-lactam (BL) such as piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) but not had been evaluated with ceftolozane-tazobactam (C/T). We aim to investigate the AKI incidence of VAN in combination with C/T (VAN/C/T) compared to VAN in combination to TZP (VAN-TZP).

Method: We conducted a multi-center observational comparative study across the United States. The primary analysis was a composite outcome of AKI: 1) RIFLE, 2) AKIN, or 3) VAN-induced-nephrotoxicity according to the consensus guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression analysis had been conducted to adjust for confounding variables and stratified Kaplan-Meir analysis to assess the time-to-nephrotoxicity between the two groups.

Results: We included (n = 90) VAN/C/T and (n = 284) VAN-TZP at an enrollment ratio of 3:1. The primary outcome occurred in 12.2% vs. 25.0% in the VAN-C/T and VAN-TZP groups, respectively (P = 0.011). After adjusting for confounding variables, VAN-TZP was associated with increased odds of AKI compared with patients receiving VAN-C/T; with an aOR of 3.308 [1.560-6.993]. Results of the stratified Kaplan-Meir with log-rank time-to-nephrotoxicity analysis indicate that time to AKI was significantly shorter among patients receiving VAN-TZP (P = 0.004). Cox proportional hazards analysis demonstrated that TZP was consistent with the primary analysis (P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Collectively, our results suggest that the AKI is not likely to be related to tazobactam but rather to the piperacillin which is a component in the VAN-TZP combination but not the VAN-C/T.

Keywords: Ceftolozane-tazobactam; Nephrotoxicity; Piperacillin-tazobactam; Vancomycin.