Objective: Adults living with HIV (ALWHIV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at high risk of pneumococcal carriage and disease. To help evaluate carriage risk in African ALWHIV at least 4 years after infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccination introduction in 2011, we assessed association between pneumococcal carriage and potential risk factors.
Methods: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from adults aged 18-40 years attending an ART clinic during rolling, cross-sectional surveys in Blantyre, Malawi between 2015 and 2019. We fitted generalized additive models to estimate the risk of sex, social economic status (SES), living with a child less than 5 years, and ART duration on carriage.
Results: Of 2067 adults, median age was 33 years (range 28-37), 1427 (69.0%) were women, 1087 (61.4%) were in low-middle socioeconomic-status (SES), 910 (44.0%) were living with a child less than 5 years, and median ART duration was 3 years (range 0.004-17). We estimated 38.2 and 60.6% reductions in overall and vaccine-serotype carriage prevalence. Overall carriage was associated with low SES, living with a child less than 5 years and shorter duration on ART. By contrast, vaccine-type carriage was associated with living without a child less than 5 years and male sex.
Conclusion: Despite temporal reductions in overall and vaccine-serotype carriage, there is evidence of incomplete vaccine-serotype indirect protection. A targeted-vaccination campaign should be considered for ALWHIV, along with other public health measures to further reduce vaccine-serotype carriage and therefore disease.
Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.