Background: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common sporadic or hereditary vascular malformations in the central nervous system. CCM1-3 variants have been identified that are associated with the majority of familial cerebral cavernous malformations (FCCMs). However, there are still a few CCM1-3 wild-type FCCMs. The aim of the present study was to identify an additional pathogenic variant of FCCMs.
Methods: In this study, a large five-generation Chinese Han family affected by CCMs was recruited. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was done for the detection of CCMs. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed, and the identified variants were co-segregation analyzed by Sanger sequencing. The function of candidate variants was predicted in silico and experimental validated by angiogenesis assay in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro.
Results: Twenty-four family members and one healthy spouse were enrolled. We found that CCMs were exhibited on MRI in nine family members. Overall, twenty-seven candidate variants were identified using WES, and no CCM1-3 variants were detected. The missense variant in LATS1 (c.821C > T, p.Thr274Ile) was verified to be associated with the clinical and pathological phenotype of FCCMs.
Conclusion: Our findings indicated that the LATS1 variant could be a potential pathogenic factor for FCCMs in this Chinese family.
Keywords: Angiogenesis; Familial cerebral cavernous malformations; Pathogenic variant; Sanger sequencing; VEGF; Whole exome sequencing.
© 2022. Fondazione Società Italiana di Neurologia.